Millisecond-timescale, genetically-targeted optical control of neural activity
[Publisher Link] [Local Copy]
Boyden, E. S., Zhang, F., Bamberg, E., Nagel, G., Deisseroth, K. (2005) Millisecond-timescale, genetically-targeted optical control of neural activity, Nature Neuroscience 8(9):1263-1268.
Temporally precise, noninvasive control of activity in well-defined neuronal populations is a long-
sought goal of systems neuroscience. We adapted for this purpose the naturally occurring algal
protein Channelrhodopsin-2, a rapidly gated light-sensitive cation channel, by using lentiviral gene
delivery in combination with high-speed optical switching to photostimulate mammalian neurons. We
demonstrate reliable, millisecond-timescale control of neuronal spiking, as well as control of
excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. This technology allows the use of light to alter
neural processing at the level of single spikes and synaptic events, yielding a widely applicable
tool for neuroscientists and biomedical engineers.
Resources associated with this Publication:
[ChR2: Channelrhodopsin-2 from C. reinhardtii]