Journal Papers

65 - Chen, F.*, Tillberg, P.W.*, Boyden, E.S. (2015) Expansion Microscopy, Science, published online DOI:10.1126/science.1260088. (*, equal contribution)

64 - Johansen J.P., Diaz-Mataix L., Hamanaka H., Ozawa T., Ycu E., Koivumaa J., Kumar A., Hou M., Deisseroth K., Boyden E.S., LeDoux J.E. (2014) Hebbian and neuromodulatory mechanisms interact to trigger associative memory formation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(51):E5584–E5592.

63 - Darrow KN, Slama MC, Kozin E, Owoc M, Hancock K, Kempfle J, Edge A, Lacour S, Boyden E, Polley D, Brown MC, Lee DJ (2014) Optogenetic stimulation of the cochlear nucleus using channelrhodopsin-2 evokes activity in the central auditory pathway, Brain Research, doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.11.044.

62 - Danilo Boada M., Martin T.J., Peters C.M., Hayashida K., Harris M.H., Houle T.T., Boyden E.S., Eisenach J.C., Ririe D.G. (2014) Fast Conducting Mechanoreceptors Contribute to Withdrawal Behavior in Normal and Nerve Injured Rats, Pain 155(12):2646-2655.

61 - Harrison R.R., Kolb I., Kodandaramaiah S.B., Chubykin A.A., Yang A., Bear M.F., Boyden E.S.*, Forest C.* (2014) Microchip amplifier for in vitro, in vivo, and automated whole-cell patch- clamp recording, Journal of Neurophysiology doi:10.1152/jn.00629.2014. (*, equal contribution)

60 - Marblestone, A.H., Boyden, E.S. (2014) Designing Tools for Assumption-Proof Brain Mapping, Neuron 83(6):1239-1241.

59 - Fukunaga I., Herb J.T., Kollo M., Boyden E.S., Schaefer A.T. (2014) Independent control of gamma and theta activity by distinct interneuron networks in the olfactory bulb, Nature Neuroscience 17(9):1208-16.

58 - Chuong, A. S., Miri, M. L.*, Busskamp, V.*, Matthews, G.A.C.*, Acker, L.C.*, Soresnsen, A.T., Young, A., Klapoetke, N. C., Henninger, M.A., Kodandaramaiah, S.B., Ogawa, M., Ramanlal, S. B., Bandler, R. C., Allen, B. D., Forest, C.R., Chow, B.Y., Han, X., Lin, Y., Tye, K.M., Roska, R., Cardin, J.A., Boyden, E. S. (2014) Noninvasive optical inhibition with a red-shifted microbial rhodopsin, Nature Neuroscience 17:1123-1129. (*, equal contribution)

57 - Hochbaum, D.R.*, Zhao, Y.*, Farhi, S.L., Klapoetke, N.C., Werley, C.A., Kapoor, V., Zou, P., Kralj, J.M., Maclaurin, D., Smedemark-Margulies, N., Saulnier, J., Boulting, G.L., Straub, C., Cho, Y., Melkonian, M., Wong, G.K.-S., Harrison, D. J., Murthy, V.N., Sabatini, B., Boyden, E.S.**, Campbell, R.E.**, Cohen, A.E. (2014) All-optical electrophysiology in mammalian neurons using engineered microbial rhodopsins, Nature Methods, 11(8):825-33. (*, equal contribution, **, jointly directed work)

56 - Prevedel, R.**, Yoon, Y.-G.**, Hoffman, M., Pak, N., Wetzstein, G., Kato, S., Schrodel, T., Raskar, R., Zimmer, M., Boyden, E. S.*, Vaziri, A. * (2014) Simultaneous whole-animal 3D imaging of neuronal activity using light-field microscopy, Nature Methods 11:727-730. (** equal contribution, * co-corresponding authors)

55 - Klapoetke, N. C., Murata, Y., Kim S. S., Pulver, S. R., Birdsey-Benson, A., Cho, Y. K., Morimoto, T. K., Chuong, A. S., Carpenter, E. J., Tian, Z., Wang, J., Xie, Y., Yan, Z., Zhang, Y., Chow, B.Y., Surek, B., Melkonian, M., Jayaraman, V., Constantine-Paton, M., Wong, G. K.*, Boyden, E. S.* (2014) Independent Optical Excitation of Distinct Neural Populations, Nature Methods 11:338–346. (* co-corresponding authors)

54 - Perea, G., Yang, A., Boyden, E. S., Sur, M. (2014) Optogenetic astrocyte activation modulates response selectivity of visual cortex neurons in vivo, Nature Communications 5:3262.

53 - Schmidt, D., Tillberg, P. W.*, Chen, F.*, Boyden, E. S. (2014) A fully genetically-encoded protein architecture for optical control of peptide ligand concentration, Nature Communications, 5:3019. (* equal contribution)

52 - Marblestone, A. H.**+, Zamft, B. M.+, Maguire, Y. G., Shapiro, M. G., Cybulski, T. R., Glaser, J. I., Amodei, D., Stranges, P. B., Kalhor, R., Dalrymple, D. A., Seo, D., Alon, E., Maharbiz, M. M., Carmena, J. M., Rabaey, J. M., Boyden, E. S.*, Church, G. M. *, Kording, K. P. * (2013) Physical Principles for Scalable Neural Recording, Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 7:137. (** corresponding author, + equal contribution, * equal contribution)

51 - Glaser J.I.**, Zamft B.M.*, Marblestone A.H.*, Moffitt J.R., Tyo K., Boyden E.S., Church G., Kording K.P. (2013) Statistical analysis of molecular signal recording, PLoS Computational Biology 9(7):e1003145. (** corresponding author, * equal contribution)

50 - Kodandaramaiah, S. B., Boyden, E. S.*, Forest, C. F.* (2013) In vivo robotics: the automation of neuroscience and other intact-system biological fields, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1305(1):63-71. (* co-corresponding authors)

49 - Tsunematsu T., Tabuchi S., Tanaka K.F., Boyden E.S., Tominaga M., Yamanaka A. (2013) Long-lasting silencing of orexin/hypocretin neurons using archaerhodopsin induces slow-wave sleep in mice, Behavioural Brain Research, 255:64-74.

48 - Famm, K., Litt, B., Tracey, K.J., Boyden, E.S., Slaoui, M. (2013) Drug discovery: a jump-start for electroceuticals, Nature 496(7444):159-61.

47 - Kahn, I., Knoblich, U., Desai, M., Bernstein, J., Graybiel, A.M., Boyden, E.S., Buckner, R.L., Moore C.I. (2013) Optogenetic drive of neocortical pyramidal neurons generates fMRI signals that are correlated with spiking activity, Brain Research, 1511:33-45.

46 - Chow, B. Y.* and Boyden, E. S.* (2013) Optogenetics and Translational Medicine, Science Translational Medicine 5(177):177ps5. (* co-corresponding authors)

45 - Alivisatos, A., Andrews, A., Boyden, E. S., Chun, M., Church, G., Deisseroth, K., Donoghue, J., Fraser, S., Lippincott-Schwartz, J., Looger, L., Masmanidis, S., McEuen, P., Nurmikko, A., Park, H., Peterka, D., Reid, C., Roukes, M., Scherer, A., Schnitzer, M., Sejnowski, T., Shepard, K., Tsao, D., Turrigiano, G., Weiss, P., Xu, C., Yuste, R., Zhuang, X. (2013) Nanotools for Neuroscience and Brain Activity Mapping, ACS Nano, 7(3):1850-66.

44 - Cavanaugh, J., Monosov, I. E., McAlonan, K., Berman, R. A., Smith, M. K., Cao, V., Wang, K. H., Boyden, E. S., Wurtz, R. H. (2012) Optogenetic Inactivation Modifies Monkey Visuomotor Behavior, Neuron 76:901–907.

43 - Gurkan, U. A., Fan, Y., Xu, F., Erkmen, B., Urkac, E. S., Parlakgul, G., Bernstein, J., Xing, W.*, Boyden, E. S.*, Demirci, U.* (2013) Simple precision creation of digitally specified, spatially heterogeneous, engineered tissue architectures, Advanced Materials 25(8):1192-1198. (* co-corresponding authors)

42 - Zorzos, A. N., Scholvin, J., Boyden, E. S.*, Fonstad, C. G. (2012) Three-dimensional multiwaveguide probe array for light delivery to distributed brain circuits, Optics Letters 37(23):4841-4843. (* corresponding author)

41 - Boyden, E. S. (2013) Interview with Edward S. Boyden, Trends in Neurosciences 36(1):1-2.

40 - Zamft, B. M.*, Marblestone, A. H.*, Kording, K., Schmidt, D., Martin-Alarcon, D., Tyo, K., Boyden, E. S., Church, G. (2012) Measuring Cation Dependent DNA Polymerase Fidelity Landscapes by Deep Sequencing, PLoS ONE 7(8): e43876. (* co-first authors)

39 - Lee, S.-H., Kwan, A. C., Zhang, S., Phoumthipphavong, V., Flannery, J. G., Masmanidis, S. C., Taniguchi, H., Huang, Z. J., Zhang, F., Boyden, E. S., Deisseroth, K., Dan, Y. (2012) Activation of specific interneurons improves V1 feature selectivity and visual perception, Nature 488(7411):379-8.

38 - Gerits, A., Farivar, R., Rosen, B. R., Wald, L. L., Boyden, E. S., Vanduffel, W. (2012) Optogenetically Induced Behavioral and Functional Network Changes in Primates, Current Biology 22(18):1722-6.

37 - Karayiorgou M., Flint J., Gogos J.A., Malenka R.C.; the Genetic and Neural Complexity in Psychiatry 2011 Working Group (Bargmann C.I., Boyden E.S., Bullmore E.T., Chan A.W., Davis M., Deisseroth K., Dolmetch R.E., Eggan K., Fears S.C., Freimer N.B., Geschwind D.H., Gordon J., Nickerson D.A., Vanderhaeghen P., Axel R., Zuker C.S., Fischbach G.) (2012) The best of times, the worst of times for psychiatric disease, Nature Neuroscience 15(6):811-812.

36 - Kodandaramaiah, S., Talei Franzesi, G., Chow, B., Boyden, E. S.*, Forest, C.* (2012) Automated whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology of neurons in vivo, Nature Methods 9:585–587. (* co-corresponding authors)

35 - Kim K.M., Baratta M.V., Yang A., Lee D., Boyden E.S.*, Fiorillo C.D.* (2012) Optogenetic mimicry of the transient activation of dopamine neurons by natural reward is sufficient for operant reinforcement, PLoS One 7(4):e33612. (* co-corresponding authors)

34 - Madisen, L., Mao, T., Koch, H., Zhuo, J.-m., Berenyi, A., Fujisawa, S., Hsu, Y.-W., Garcia, A. J., Gu, X., Zanella, S., Kidney, J., Gu, H., Mao, Y., Hooks, B. M., Boyden, E. S., Buzsáki, G., Ramirez, J. M., Jones, A. R., Svoboda, K., Han, X., Turner, E. E., Zeng, H. (2012) A toolbox of Cre-dependent optogenetic transgenic mice for light-induced activation and silencing, Nature Neuroscience 15(5):793-802.

33 - Chow B.Y., Han, X., Boyden, E. S. (2012) Genetically encoded molecular tools for light-driven silencing of targeted neurons, Progress in Brain Research 196:49-61.

32 - Knopfel, T., Boyden, E. S. (2012) Tools for observing and controlling specific molecular or physiological pathways in intact cells and tissues. Preface, Progress in Brain Research 196:vii–viii.

31 - Börgers C., Talei Franzesi G., LeBeau F. E. N. , Boyden E. S., Kopell N.J. (2012) Minimal Size of Cell Assemblies Coordinated by Gamma Oscillations, PLoS Computational Biology 8(2):e1002362.

30 - Bernstein, J. G., Boyden, E. S. (2011) Optogenetic tools for analyzing the neural circuits of behavior, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15(12):592-600.

29 - Kleinlogel, S., Terpitz, U., Legrum, B., Gokbuget, D., Boyden, E. S., Bamann, C., Wood, P. G., Bamberg, E. (2011) A gene-fusion strategy for stoichiometric and co-localized expression of light-gated membrane proteins, Nature Methods 8(12):1083-1088.

28 - Bernstein, J. G., Garrity, P. A.*, Boyden, E. S.* (2012) Optogenetics and thermogenetics: technologies for controlling the activity of targeted cells within intact neural circuits, Current Opinion in Neurobiology 22(1):61-71. (* co-corresponding authors)

27 - Kahn, I. * Desai, M., Knoblich, U., Bernstein, J., Henninger, M., Graybiel, A. M., Boyden, E. S.*, Buckner, R. L. *, Moore, C. I. * (2011) Characterization of the Functional MRI Response Temporal Linearity via Optical Control of Neocortical Pyramidal Neurons, Journal of Neuroscience 31(42):15086-15091. (* co-corresponding authors)

26 - Tsunematsu, T., Kilduff, T., Boyden, E. S., Takahashi, S., Tominaga, M., Yamanaka, A. (2011) Acute optogenetic silencing of orexin/hypocretin neurons induces slow wave sleep in mice, Journal of Neuroscience 31(29): 10529-10539.

25 - Joo, J., Chow, B. Y., Prakash, M., Boyden, E. S., Jacobson, J. M. (2011) Face-selective electrostatic control of hydrothermal zinc oxide nanowire synthesis, Nature Materials 10(8):596-601.

24 - Wentz, C. T., Bernstein, J. G., Monahan, P., Guerra, A., Rodriguez, A., Boyden, E. S. (2011) A Wirelessly Powered and Controlled Device for Optical Neural Control of Freely-Behaving Animals, Journal of Neural Engineering 8(4):046021.

23 - Chow, B. Y. and Boyden, E. S. (2011) Synthetic Physiology, Science 332(6037):1508-1509.

22 - McCarthy, M. M., Moore-Kochlacs, C., Xuan Gu, T., Boyden, E. S., Han, X., Kopell, N. J. (2011) Striatal origin of the pathologic beta oscillations in Parkinson’s disease, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(28):11620-5.

21 - Chow, B. Y.*, Chuong, A. S. *, Klapoetke, N. C. *, Boyden, E. S. (2011) Synthetic Physiology: Strategies for Adapting Tools from Nature for Genetically-Targeted Control of Fast Biological Processes, Methods in Enzymology 497:425-43. (* co-first authors)

20 - Boyden, E.S. (2011) A history of optogenetics: the development of tools for controlling brain circuits with light, F1000 Biology Reports 3:11.

19 - Doroudchi, M. M., Greenberg, K. P., Liu, J., Silka, K. A., Boyden, E. S., Lockridge, J. A., Arman, A. C., Janani, R., Boye, S. E., Boye, S. L., Gordon, G. M., Matteo, B. C., Sampath, A. P., Hauswirth, W. W., Horsager, A. (2011) Virally delivered Channelrhodopsin-2 Safely and Effectively Restores Visual Function in Multiple Mouse Models of Blindness, Molecular Therapy 19(7):1220-9.

18 - Han, X.*, Chow, B. Y.*, Zhou, H., Klapoetke, N. C., Chuong, A., Rajimehr, R., Yang, A., Baratta, M. V., Winkle, J., Desimone, R., Boyden, E. S. (2011) A high-light sensitivity optical neural silencer: development and application to optogenetic control of non-human primate cortex, Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 5:18. (* co-first authors)

17 - Desai M., Kahn I., Knoblich U., Bernstein J., Atallah H., Yang A., Kopell, N., Buckner R.L., Graybiel A. M., Moore C. I.*, and Boyden E. S.* (2011) Mapping Brain Networks in Awake Mice Using Combined Optical Neural Control and fMRI, Journal of Neurophysiology 105(3):1393-405. (* co-corresponding authors)

16 - Zorzos, A. N., Boyden, E. S.*, and Fonstad, C. G. (2010) Multiwaveguide implantable probe for light delivery to sets of distributed brain targets, Optics Letters 35(24):4133-5. (* corresponding author)

15 - Knopfel, T., Lin, M. Z., Levskaya, A., Tian, L., Lin, J. Y., Boyden, E. S. (2010) Toward the Second Generation of Optogenetic Tools, Journal of Neuroscience 30(45):14998-15004.

14 - Chan, S. Y., Bernstein, J. G., Boyden, E. S. (2010) Scalable Fluidic Injector Arrays for Viral Targeting of Intact 3-D Brain Circuits, Journal of Visualized Experiments 35:1489.

13 - Chow, B. Y.*, Han, X.*, Dobry, A. S., Qian, X., Chuong, A. S., Li, M., Henninger, M. A., Belfort, G. M., Lin, Y., Monahan, P. E., Boyden, E. S. (2010) High-performance genetically targetable optical neural silencing by light- driven proton pumps, Nature 463:98-102. (* co-first authors)

12 - Han X., Qian X., Stern P., Chuong A. and Boyden E.S. (2009) Informational Lesions: Optical Perturbation of Spike Timing and Neural Synchrony Via Microbial Opsin Gene Fusions, Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 2:12.

11 - Han, X.*, Qian, X., Bernstein, J.G., Zhou, H.-H., Talei Franzesi, G., Stern, P., Bronson, R.T., Graybiel, A.M., Desimone, R., and Boyden, E.S.* (2009) Millisecond-Timescale Optical Control of Neural Dynamics in the Nonhuman Primate Brain, Neuron 62(2):191-198. (* co-corresponding authors)

10 - Liao, Y. J., Safa, P., Chen, Y.-R., Sobel, R. A., Boyden, E. S., Tsien, R. W. (2008) Anti-Ca2+ channel antibody attenuates Ca2+ currents and mimics cerebellar ataxia in vivo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(7):2705-2710.

9 - Wang, H., Peca, J., Matsusaki, M., Matsusaki, K., Noguchi, J., Qiu, L., Wang, D., Zhang, F., Boyden, E. S., Deisseroth, K., Kasai, H., Hall, W. C., Feng, G., Augustine, G. J. (2007) High-speed mapping of synaptic connectivity using photostimulation in channelrhodopsin-2 transgenic mice, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(19):8143-848.

8 - Han, X. and Boyden, E. S. (2007) Multiple-color optical activation, silencing, and desynchronization of neural activity, with single-spike temporal resolution, PLoS ONE 2(3): p. e299.

7 - Zhang, F., Wang, L.-P., Boyden, E. S., Deisseroth, K. (2006) Optical control of excitable cells and Channelrhodopsin-2, Nature Methods 3(10):785-92.

6 - Boyden, E. S., Katoh, A., Pyle, J. L., Chatila, T. A., Tsien, R. W., Raymond, J. L. (2006) Selective engagement of plasticity mechanisms for motor memory storage, Neuron 51(6):823-834.

5 - Boyden, E. S., Zhang, F., Bamberg, E., Nagel, G., Deisseroth, K. (2005) Millisecond-timescale, genetically-targeted optical control of neural activity, Nature Neuroscience 8(9):1263-1268.

4 - Kimpo, R. R.*, Boyden, E. S.*, Katoh, A., Ke, M. C., Raymond, J. L. (2005) Distinct patterns of stimulus generalization of increases and decreases in VOR gain, Journal of Neurophysiology 94(5):3092-3100. (* co-first authors)

3 - Boyden, E. S.*, Katoh, A.*, Raymond, J. L. (2004) Cerebellum-dependent learning: The role of multiple plasticity mechanisms, Annual Review of Neuroscience 27:581-609. (* co-first authors)

2 - Boyden, E. S., Raymond, J. L. (2003) Active reversal of motor memories reveals rules governing memory encoding, Neuron 39(6):1031-42.

1 - Maguire, Y., Boyden, E. S., Gershenfeld, N. (2000) Toward a table-top quantum computer, IBM Systems Journal 39:3&4, p.823.

Conference Papers

7 - J. Go, A. Fan, C. Lu, S.B. Kodandaramaiah, G.L. Holst, W. Stoy, I. Kolb, E.S. Boyden, C.R. Forest (2013) Fully-automated, in-vivo, single cell electrophysiology, Proceedings of the 28th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, Saint Paul, MN, Oct 20-25, 2013.

6 - I. Kolb, G. Holst, B. Goldstein, S.B. Kodandaramaiah, E.S. Boyden, E. Culurciello, C.R. Forest (2013) Automated, in-vivo, whole-cell electrophysiology using an integrated patch-clamp amplifier, Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting (CNS 2013), Paris, France, July 13-18, 2013.

5 - Kodandaramaiah, S., Krijnen, M., Go, J., Malik, S., Sondej, N., Khatait, J. P., Boyden, E. S., Aarts, R. G. K. M., Brouwer, D. M., Forest, C. F. (2011) Characterization of translation of fused silica micropipettes in non-rectilinear trajectories, Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, Denver, CO.

4 - Doroudchi, M. M., Greenberg, K. P., Zorzos, A. N., Hauswirth, W. W., Fonstad, C. G., Horsager, A., Boyden, E. S. (2011) Towards Optogenetic Sensory Replacement, Conference Proceedings of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 2011:3139-41.

3 - Boyden, E. S. (2011) Optogenetics. 33rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC ’11).

2 - Bernstein, J. G., Han, X., Henninger, M. A., Ko, E. Y., Qian, X., Franzesi, G. T., McConnell, J. P., Stern, P., Desimone, R., and Boyden, E. S. (2008) Prosthetic systems for therapeutic optical activation and silencing of genetically-targeted neurons, Proc Soc Photo Opt Instrum Eng 6854:68540H.

1 - Fletcher, R., Omojola, O., Boyden, E. S., Gershenfeld, N. (1999) Reconfigurable Agile Tag Reader Technologies for Combined EAS and RFID capability, Proceedings of the Second IEEE Workshop on Automatic Identification Advanced Technologies, Summit, New Jersey.

Conference Abstracts

Book Chapters


Byline Articles

19 - Boyden, E. S. (2014) Let there be light, Scientific American Mind, November/December 2014.

18 - Boyden, E. S. (2011) Optogenetics: Using Light to Control the Brain, Cerebrum, The Dana Foundation, November 2011.

17 - Boyden, E. S. (2011) The Birth of Optogenetics, The Scientist, July 2011 Issue. (Cover Story.)

16 - Boyden, E. S. (2010) "Molecular Tools for Controlling Brain Circuits with Light," Eppendorf and Science Prize for Neurobiology Competition Essay, Science Magazine.

15 - Boyden, E. S., Allen, B. D., Fritz, D. (2010) "Brain Coprocessors." Column, Technology Review. 9/23/2010.

14 - Boyden, E. S. (2010) Controlling the Brain with Light. SPIE Newsroom. 6/10/2010.

13 - Boyden, E. S. and Chow, B. Y. (2010) "Defining An Algorithm For Inventing From Nature." Column, Technology Review. 1/19/2010.

12 - Boyden, E. S. (2009) “The Singularity and the Fixed Point.” Column, Technology Review. 9/4/2009. (

11 - Boyden, E. S. (2009) "Civilization as Experiment." Ed Boyden's Blog. Technology Review. 1/19/09. (

10 - Boyden, E. S. (2008) "Averting Disasters, Preventing Problems." Ed Boyden's Blog. Technology Review. 9/2/08. (

9 - Boyden, E. S. (2008) "Research as a Community-Building Activity." Ed Boyden's Blog. Technology Review. 7/28/08. (

8 - Boyden, E. S. (2008) "Inverting the Core." Ed Boyden's Blog. Technology Review. 7/14/08. (

7 - Boyden, E. S. (2008) "Training a Generation of Neuroengineers." Ed Boyden's Blog, Technology Review. 4/22/08. (

6 - Boyden, E. S. (2007) "How to Think." Ed Boyden's Blog. Technology Review. 11/13/07. (

5 - Boyden, E. S. (2007) "Synthetic Neurobiology." Ed Boyden's Blog. Technology Review. 10/9/07. (

4 - Boyden, E. S. (2007) "Open Philanthropy." Ed Boyden's Blog. Technology Review. 9/24/07. (

3 - Boyden, E. S. (2007) "In Pursuit of Human Augmentation." Ed Boyden's Blog. Technology Review. 9/17/07. (

2 - Boyden, E. S. (2007) “Engineering the Brain (‘Notebooks’ column),” Technology Review, March/April 2007 issue, p. 34-35.

1 - Boyden, E. S. (2000) Computational and Theoretical Neuroscience: From Synapse to Circuitry. National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Technical Report for Workshop of April 28, 2000.

Synthetic Neurobiology Memos